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Liaquat National Hospital

Liaquat National Medical College

Speech And Language Pathology Unit

We cry, we talk, we listen to the word of sounds and words. These acts are not as simple as they sound. Our ability to speak helps us to know more about the wonderful world we live in. it helps us to understand other’s ideas emotions and tell them what we want to say. This difficulty act cannot be mastered by many. Let’s learn about speech and language disabilities.

Delayed Speech and Language
Besides a hearing loss in childhood, there are other factors which can cause a delay in speech and learning. They are:
• Mental retardation
• Emotional disturbance
• Poor speech/language stimulation
• Brain damage
Children with delayed speech and language need professional help. Speech and language therapy is essential for developing speech communication skills.

Speech sounds are building blocks of speech. A great deal of precision and gymnastics of tongue, lips, jaws and palate is required for this. Normally children master this skill by 7 years of age. Sometimes children are born with an oral-facial malformation. One such disorder is the cleft of lip and/ or prosthesis. However, certain residual difficulty in maintaining air pressure in the mouth results in misarticulation and nasality.
There are centers in the brain responsible for movement or coordination of the speech musculature. Lesions to these centers cause weakness, incoordination and paralysis resulting in a speech disorder called dysarthria. Apart from this they have difficulty in chewing and swallowing. Furthermore, we do find some children with intact speech organs who find it difficult to say some speech sounds. Using speech therapy techniques it is possible to improve the clarity of their speech.

Voice Disorders
Voice is the show case which reflects our emotions, personality and identity. Our voice is produced by the vocal folds in the larynx (voice box). Abuse, misuse, structural abnormalities such as growth on the vocal voice, persistent hoarseness may be an early sign of laryngeal cancer. Voice therapy can restore or maintain one’s voice.

Speech like walking has rhythm and flow. Disruption of this flow reduces the effectiveness of speech and is known as stuttering or stammering. This may range from mild hesitation to a severe disruption in the flow of speech. Such people not only need prompt therapeutic intervention but also support from family and friends.

Of the various faculties of the human brain the ability to express ideas, thoughts and feelings through speech is a precious gift to mankind. This wonderful faculty is possible because of speech centers of the brain and the speech organs we possess.
Damage to those speech centers (for example in falij patients) causes language disorders known as aphasia. Such people have difficulty in expressing and understanding speech. In addition they may have difficulty in reading, writing and calculating. Such people need emotional support and help from the family. Speech and language therapy helps to recover their speech communication skills.

Swallowing disorders
Various diseases/insults result in swallowing disorders (dysphagia). These include: lesions in the brain (e.g. falij), supraglottic tumors, traumatic brain injury, degenerative diseases, cerebral palsy, chemotherapy patients, laryngectomy, tracheostomy, and clefts. Compensatory and therapeutic techniques are carried out to improve the swallow.

Hearing handicap
Our ears are the doorways to the world of communication. It is the listening child who learns to say his first word by the age of 12 months. So hearing loss at birth or early childhood has serious effects on speech learning. Infectious diseases, excessive antibiotics, trauma and genetic factors can cause hearing loss when the child is in the mother’s womb, at birth or while growing up.
Although the hearing impaired child has the ability to speak, he can neither hear what he has to produce nor correct his poor imitations, such children need immediate audiological help to find out how much of the child’s hearing ability is left intact. Depending upon whether the hearing loss is mild, moderate, severe or profound, a hearing aid has to be fitted.
A hearing aid or cochlear implant helps the child hear better and auditory training is important for listening. Speech and language stimulation helps the child to step into a talking world and learn more about it.
Hearing loss can also occur after we learn to speak. Depending upon is severity. It can, not only disrupt listening to other’s speech but also one’s own speech. They too need help.
We have a team of competent and qualified speech and language pathologist who are committed to provide:
• Articulation and phonological therapy
• Child language intervention
• Remedial intervention for late bloomers
• Therapeutic intervention for autism
• Dyslexia intervention
• Mental retardation remediation
• Behavior management
• Accent modification
• Speech therapy for cleft lip and palate
• Stuttering intervention (stammering)
• Aural rehabilitation for hearing impaired/ cochlear implant
• Sign language for hearing impaired/deaf
• Voice therapy(e.g. nodules, polyps, voice change)
• Aphasia intervention (e.g. language therapy after falij)
• Speech intervention (e.g. language therapy after falij)
• Speech intervention for motor disorders
• Oral motor rehab
• Cognitive rehabilitation ( e.g. traumatic brain injury)
• Swallowing management
• Saliva/drooling management


Sr.# Name Designation Special Interest
1. Dr. Tahmeena Tabish Latifi Charge Speech Language Pathology

Delayed Language
Cognitive rehab


2. Sumera Azam Senior Speech and Language Therapist

Neurogenic speech and language disorders
Voice Disorder
Cleft Rehab


3. Naila Gufran Speech and Language Therapist

Cochlear implant


4. Zaynub Ahmed Speech and Language Therapist

Articulation and
phonological disorders
Oral motor rehab



Speech and Language Pathology Unit
Department of Neurology

Phone: 021-34412605


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